This paper will take a topographical approach to re-reading print books in digital literary spaces through a discussion of a web-based work of digital literature “…and by islands I mean paragraphs” (Carpenter 2013). In this work, a reader is cast adrift in a sea of white space extending far beyond the bounds of the browser window, to the north, south, east and west. This sea is dotted with computer-generated paragraphs. These fluid texts call upon variable strings containing words and phrases collected from a vast literary corpus of books about islands. Individually, each of these textual islands represents a topic – from the Greek topos, meaning place. Collectively they constitute a topographical map of a sustained practice of reading and re-reading and writing and re-writing on the topic of islands. This paper will argue that, called as statement-events into digital processes, fragments of print texts are reconstituted as events occurring in a digital present which is also a break from the present. A new regime of signification emerges, in which authorship is distributed and text is ‘eventilized’ (Hayles). This regime is situated at the interface between an incoherent aesthetics, one which tends to unravel neat masses, including well-known works of print literature; and an incoherent politics, one which tends to dissolve existing institutional bonds, including bonds of authorship and of place. Alexander Galloway terms this regime of signification the ‘dirty regime of truth’.
This paper argues that digital literature can be understood as a social hermeneutic dispositif. To demonstrate this thesis, an experimental book is presented. It is written/read using a geo-tagging software, that restitutes, to the reader acting as a co-author in a Web 2.0/3.0 context, the combination of significant (semantic) keywords (or tags) with a given city place and with a certain social temporality. The novel’s title is based in the philosophical idea of deixis, i.e., the articulation of space (geo), time (neo) and logos (discourse, reason). In the interface, the fictional text presents, at each scene, 3 writing/reading itineraries, each one using a specific literary medium/language, referring, in a greater or lesser extent, to dimensions ‘space’, ‘time’ and ‘logos’. A first text has linguistic nature and was deconstructed into several sub-texts types: narrative (mention of major events), dialogic (characters dialogues) and meta-informative (keywords, tags). A second ‘text’ uses visual language inherent to characters and scenery photos (space or synchronic level) subjacent to the novel’s scenes (time or diachronic level). A 3rd ‘text’ refers to the language of maps, which represent the course (time) of the paths (space) used by novel’s characters in their daily lives both in the real and fictional world. The first (seminal) author associated photos both to the moment they were taken and to the urban space where these photos were captured or to a point in cyberspace.
Uncreative writing is a technique of writing which employs strategies of appropriation, replication, piracy, plagiarism, djing and sampling. The term was put forward by Kenneth Goldsmith in his book Uncreative Writing: Managing Language in the Digital Age (2011). The goal of the paper is the application of Goldsmith’s tools to uncreative form of writing in contemporary Polish literature in the Digital Age. Projects by authors such as Jarosław Lipszyc, Piotr Siwecki and Sławomir Shuty will be analyzed. The uncreative attitudes using digital tools should be viewed as strategies of “standing out” in the field of culture production, leading to a victory in the fight for dominance in the symbolic sphere. The subversive strategies are a very dynamic field in the battle between the avant-garde artists and the traditional methods of consecration. At stake here is not only a change of aesthetics and poetics, but attacking the basic indicators of the market, such as the quantity of circulation, a radical approach to copyright, objection to paper editions.
Vincent Jolivet (Université Paris-Sorbonne, Labex OBVIL / LIP6 – FR)
This work aims to discuss the challenges arising from the annotation of geographic Named Entities (NEs) in digital editions of both fictional texts and essays. NEs are proper names in a text that refer to people, places, organizations, etc. The manual annotation of NEs is useful both for indexing purposes, and in view of training machine-learning algorithms for automatically detecting NEs in texts. Manually checked corpora of NE are often constituted by newspaper articles or online reviews of products, while texts from the DH domains are rare. Annotating NE in literature and literary criticism corpora poses specific problems that we will discuss. The focus will be on the annotation of toponyms based on an experiment of manual annotation of two texts. An important issue is the attribution of a unique identifier to each mention of places, which is normally done by adding a URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) to each mention, pointing to existing geographical databases. In fact, URIs not only provide identification, but enrich the text with additional information. The choice of best reference repository and the pros and cons of existing resources are discussed in the light of the specific needs of literary scholarship. In the conclusion some suggestions are drawn that may lead to the identification of best practices for the semantic annotation of NE mentions in the literary domain, and more ambitiously to the enrichment of the TEI standard as well as the constitution of more suitable LOD resources for the digital humanities.
The history of Jane Austen film adaptations started almost 80 years ago and her adaptors include Aldous Huxley (Pride and Prejudice, 1940), Fay Weldon (Pride and Prejudice, 1980), Emma Thompson (Sense and Sensibility, 1995) or the veritable synonym of BBC’s highly respected record in this domain, Andrew Davies (Pride and Prejudice, 1995; Emma, 1996; Northanger Abbey, 2007; Sense and Sensibility, 2008). The rate of the new filmings accelerated greatly towards the end of the 20th century and shows no signs of slowing down in the 21st; in fact, this phenomenon seems to mimic the somewhat earlier exponential growth of Jane Austen’s status in academic literary criticism. It does not come as a surprise, then, that one of the fundamental works of computational stylistics should deal with her oeuvre. Even more interestingly, Computation into Criticism: a Study of Jane Austen’s Novels and an Experiment in Method focuses on Austenian dialogue and demonstrates, among other things, that stylometric similarity measured by multivariate analysis of most frequent words (MFWs) is greatest between similar characters, and that patterns of the same similarity between the novels correspond fairly well to traditional readings. At the same time, this approach provides new and objective insights, especially into the evolution of style in the later works (Burrows, 1987). This is why it might be interesting to see if intuitions on the degree of faithfulness of the many film and TV adaptations of Jane Austen’s work can be confirmed – or negated – by quantitative analysis of the vocabulary in the dialogues in both genres. This is a particularly interesting question as Austen has been put to screen in a wide variety of approaches, from self-proclaimed faithful renditions (the specialty of the above mentioned “BBC school”) to self-proclaimed free and unfaithful renditions, modernizations and persiflages, such as Clueless, Bride and Prejudice or Lost in Austen (Rybicki, 2013).
In this paper I present the theoretical rationals of a research project situated at the intersection of narratology and computer sciences. The principal objective of the research is to analyze some relevant concepts of narratological studies and model them using a formal ontology. In particular the object of our modelization are two key aspects of narrative analysis:
1) the notion of character/actor/actant, following the different level of abstraction proposed in the early works of Greimas. Rethinking the work carried out since the early 80s by Giuseppe Gigliozzi in Italy about the formal structure of the character in the novel and in the short story, we propose a a formal model that allows to describe the character as a “frame” (as has been defined by Marvin Minsky’s) composed of nuclear non-negotiable properties and negotiable accessories traits;
2) the notion of fictional world/space, on the basis of the concept of narrative semiotic space of Lotman and of the theories of fiction and narrative as possible worlds.
This analysis and consequent conceptual modeling is being formalized in an ontology expressed according to the standard W3C ontology vocabularies. Such a computational formalization has various scientific objectives: in the first place, it is an attempt to draw a clear theoretical account of some key concepts of narratology and literary theory; in the second place an ontology is an operational tool. This formal ontology in fact provides a tool for the analysis of strictly literary texts, but it also represents a significant contribution in the application of the concept of storytelling in communication, education and production contexts.
This paper introduces a domain-specific ontology for the annotation of figures of speech, called RAOP – Rhetorical Annotation Ontology Project. RAOP will allow students and researchers to map rhetorical aspects of written and oral texts. Informed by the study of classical and modern rhetorical scholarship, this ontology, based on W3C Linked data and Semantic Web, will be a powerful model to represent the complexity of hierarchical and non-hierarchical structures such as a rhetorical system. Built in RDF, RAOP could also be expanded to all standards of Semantic Web and it could be used together with other formal ontologies already in existence such as FRBR, TEI and, CIDOC-CRM. The hierarchical model of TEI P5, used for building the digital edition of Bertolucci’s La camera da letto, was a fitting data structure for many levels of annotations. However, a rhetorical figure involves multiple co-existing elements, the disadvantage of overlapping in the so called XML-trees is a limit and a challenge for the representation of complex text structures. This project is one of the possible approaches taken into consideration to digitize figures of speech by using technologies associated with Linked data and Semantic Web. Together with the ontology, a tool will be presented, made ad hoc in order to quicken the encoding process, and an example of literary analysis. In conclusion, the paper will show the advantages that a digital edition brings to our understanding of a poetic text.
We present ongoing work on the restructuring of a taxonomy of literary themes and motifs on the basis of ontology design principles. The original taxonomy is part of a project in which epigraphic texts are tagged with items from the taxonomy, either on a line by line basis or on the basis of whole epigraphs at a time. These tags, then, describe the different themes or motifs that are contained within the text. The taxonomy was originally devised by domain experts and based on long standing traditions in literary analysis. Our work aims to make it easier to query these tagged texts by altering the structure of the taxonomy in order to make it more efficient for querying; while, at the same time, maintaining its ease of use by potential users. First of all we describe some of the features of the original taxonomy that make it difficult to use in querying. We go onto describe how we used principles from ontology design and informatics research to suggest to ameliorate these difficulties, and our efforts to preserve as much of the initial, intuitive, structure as possible. Finally, we discuss further work.
This paper presents part of a project exploring how young people understand and make use of online locations. Virtual spaces are used to negotiate norms (Palo & Manderstedt, 2011), provide learning opportunities, interactivity and an understanding of spatiality, but entail risks. In Swedish curricula for compulsory and secondary school, L1 teaching includes multimodal texts (Skolverket, 2011a, 2011b). Teachers are to include text types like web texts or self-writing, the latter connected with the selfie phenomenon. We analyse teenagers’ selfies and captions from Facebook as partly fiction; the person “writes” the self through the images and captions, contributing to a text archive (cf. Derecho, 2006).
Media ecology encompassing technology, communication, culture and education is a point of departure (McLuhan, 1967; McLuhan and Fiore, 1967; Ong, 2005; Bruner, 2002; Postman, 1970; Strate, 2006). The prosumer perspective is central, i.e. a consumer also producing media (Jenkins, 2006; Olin-Scheller & Wikström, 2010). Intersectional and semiotic perspectives have been adopted (De los Reyes & Mulinari, 2014; Butler, 2006 ; Kress, 2010; Kress & Selander, 2012; Van Leeuwen & Jewitt, 2001). Gee (2005) provides a theoretical approach to Facebook as a semiotic domain. The preliminary results show four main categories in the material: “to girl oneself” (cf. Nilsson, 2013), “to boy oneself”, “to muscle oneself” and “to perform a life style”. Our study highlights the selfies and comments as fiction, as stories of the selves, construed and constructed, like traditional autobiographies.
In his appropriation of Clarice Lispector’s short story Amor [Love], Rui Torres re-encodes the source text, inscribes it in the digital materiality and turns it into the hypermedia poem Amor de Clarice [Clarice’s Love]. The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between these two texts and clarify the ‘deformation’ or ‘transformation’ the poem makes of its intertext, emphasizing the role of the video fragments, the music and the voice in the combinatorial game the hypermedia text proposes. In Lispector’s short story the most important form seems to be the stream of consciousness underlying the character as a central axis. As a representation of the character’s self-consciousness of the vertigo of love in her life, I’ll try to show how Clarice’s Love recreates and rewrites the original. If plagiotropy – understood as a process of active and reflective literary appropriation (Torres, 2014) – exists in the Portuguese tradition, it will be interesting to argue for the possibility of separation from its source text, expanding, rather than limiting, the ambiguity of the original character.
Session E [Teaching Strand 1]
Stephen H. Gregg (Bath Spa University – UK)
Students, Building, Sharing: Case Studies in Student Digital Editing
This paper is a case study on an undergraduate digital editing project run in place of the traditional final year dissertation. Via two case studies, it will be a reflection upon my students’ experiences in building and publishing their own online editions of eighteenth-century literary texts. The project was partly a response to what I perceived to be students’ limited grasp of the nature of the literary texts they encountered via existing electronic resources, databases, and archives.
The paper will discuss the ability of students to reflect upon and rationalise the use of digital technology; in effect, their answers to the questions: ‘What is a text in a digital context?’ ‘Why digital?’ and ‘Who is this for’? The interconnectedness of these questions draws upon two definitions of digital humanities: Stephen Ramsay’s blog essay ‘On Building’ and Mark Sample’s rejoinder ‘The digital humanities is not about building, it’s about sharing’. In fact, neither post’s definition of the practice of digital humanities is as exclusive or dichotomous as their titles suggest. This is born out in the way that my students’ projects have demonstrated the intimacy between building and sharing. So building these editions brought alive to these students issues that might have remained amorphous or obscurely understood or even unexamined. In this sense they are participating in what Ian Bogost has called ‘procedural literacy’. This paper, then, also reflects upon how digital technology could offer English Literature students a way to demonstrate their critical skills in a more tangible way than in written coursework – to create something beyond the confines of the hermetic world of student/tutor/institution.
Nessa provocação, tratarei de três aspectos que afetam a tentativa de abordagem em sala de aula do texto literário criado em ambiente digital, observando suas relações com a prática pedagógica instrumentalizadora de futuros professores. Primeiro, discutirei a noção de integridade do objeto e sua possível recepção. Denominada de portabilidade, será caracterizada pelo enfrentamento direto do texto pelo fruidor e a sua difícil ou improvável reprodutibilidade em sala de aula enquanto experiência estética, observando pari passu a noção do cânone ditado pelas listas de leitura, suplementos literários e mesmo as casas editoriais. Por segundo, tratarei das evanescências, problema não exclusivo do mundo digital, mas que o afeta sobremaneira. Tanto o acesso, enquanto experiência estética, quanto o estudo, como crítica, se tornam problemáticos diante de alguns obstáculos como georrefenciamento, direito autoral, transitoriedade do objeto e ineficácias temporais de software e hardware. Por fim, evidenciarei a normatização da experiência estética por aquilo que chamo aqui de rubricas, ou seja, os mecanismos norteadores da leitura e da experiência estética, muitas vezes manifestos estéticos, que não só organizam a leitura, mas impõem desde antes os limites da percepção do objeto literário.
This paper presents a theory of the literary object derived from postmodern literature and contemporary object-oriented Speculative Realist philosophy as the foundation for a digital literary database. Taking up Thomas Pynchon’s novels, this paper analyzes the form of the current PynchonWiki and adapts its model toward to the production of a more comprehensive database. The proposed database functions by identifying multiple overlapping literary objects within a text and mapping their relationships within their various frames. The model of object that informs the database is implicit already in Pynchon’s novels and more fully articulated in Tristan Garcia’s recent work “Form and Object.” The purely internal mapping of literary objects within the text is augmented by intertextual sources and the continuations of objects beyond the text. The resultant database presents a rigorous account of internal networks of literary objects that nonetheless maintain interpretative ambiguity through their multiplicity and their intertextual participations. The paper closes by presenting initial examples of the database project using University of Chicago’s OCHRE database service, and compares its CHOIR ontology to the one developed in this paper.
This paper starts with a consideration of Jakobson’s model of communication and argues in favour of a more pragmatic version of this as articulated by Jean-Jacques Lecercle. His model introduces the notion of interpellation whereby the text calls the figure of author and reader into subject positions. For our purposes however, this pragmatic model doesn’t account for the presence/function of the machine, vital to any model of digital literature. One way of dealing with this is to posit a second communication layer, an identically shaped model of digital elements laid over the top of Lecercle’s. This raises the question of the connection between the two planes? The answer offered here is ‘performativity’. To develop this further, the language positions of the two models are used as an example, i.e. how are the language of the text and the language of the machine linked through performativity? To answer this question, the paper exploits certain conceptual tools, starting with integrational linguistics. This argues that in natural language, meaning is determined by the performance of communication in specific contexts. This links with the Speech Act theory of John Searle, which itself grew out of J.L. Austin’s notion of ‘performatives’. And it is precisely the notion of Speech Act theory which underlines Geoff Cox’s articulation of code as performative, as speech/act. The paper considers certain objections to this argument – not least concerning the social nature of performative – as well as counters to this. The conclusion gives a very brief account of how the other elements of bi-planar model can similarly be linked through performativity.
Anthology of the History of Electronic Literature (1945-2015) is an editorial and research project conceived by the independent researchers Daniele Giampà and Roberta Iadevaia. The project foresees the development of two initiatives, one off-line and one on-line. The first will concern the realization of the Anthology as hypertext eBook within the year 2016. The eBook will contain reviews of some works of electronic literature chosen on the basis of several criteria like: technology, innovative aspects, historic relevance, exemplariness. All reviews will be accompanied by bio-bibliographies of the authors, in-depth analysis of critical contributions and artistic, social, cultural and technological events crucial for the field. The works will be selected from existing databases, academic publications and anthologies (ELMCIP anthology and database, ELC volumes 1-2, Hermeneia anthology, etc.). Particular relevance will be given to Italian works, usually missing in the sources mentioned above. The theoretical approach will follow the method of triangulation (narratology, computer science, aesthetics) thereby overcoming purely descriptive analysis. The on-line initiative will include the realization of a blog which will contain, inter alia, a detailed and interactive chronology of the history of electronic literature, seminal essays for the field translated into Italian by Giampà and Iadevaia, insights, interviews and event reports related to electronic art. Both initiatives are characterized by being the first of its kind made in Italy and in Italian and aim the dissemination of electronic literature in Italy as well as the involvement of the widest possible audience.
We would like to present the Ciberia Project to the electronic literature community, a project that emerged around the creation of a digital literature archive and whose aim is to continue developing forms of community building through the interaction of people with its content. From the particular constitution of the archive to the ramifications of it, the Ciberia Project attempts to provide a reference point to students and researchers of digital literature in Spanish and offer a pool of contacts to creators of digital literature. The Ciberia Project intends to function as a platform for a community interested and/or specialized in new creative forms of publishing literary content. Thus, the digital archive Ciberia, will work as the nucleus of two derivate projects, a webpage around which a community can interact, and a publishing label focused on electronic literature creation and ciberculture theories. We are developing this label with the support of Factoría Cultural, a Creative Hub whose program EmprendeLibro helps and advises emerging digital editorial projects. We aim to respond to both, the need to unite and give visibility to the variety of works that explore and problematize the new literary reading and writing rituals in digital displays, and the generalized search for new publishing formulas that exploit to the full the possibilities opened by digital technologies. With this project we would like to raise awareness towards the wealth of creativity and experimentation present in digital literature, born at the intersection of cyberculture and art, bringing together elements from many different disciplines, in short, a laboratory of new formulas for the literary in cyberspace, a field of digitally-born pieces which contain the seed for the future standards of the publishing industry.
This paper spins from an analysis of several works of critical writing in the field of digital poetry, which have been documented at the ELMCIP Knowledge Base. The first stage of the research process has been trying to understand which tags have higher frequency, as one observes how the field has evolved in terms of theoretical analysis (content type: critical writing) and its correspondent classification in ELMCIP. Secondly, the database has been filtered in terms of critical writing tagged with the taxonomy “digital poetry” (higher frequency, 109 records). From here onwards, a period for analysis, 1995-2015, was selected, as it signals the twenty-year span of Web-based digital poems. Hence, the publication types selected were monographs and PhD dissertations tagged with “digital poetry” or having “poetry” in their title. This process created a smaller corpus for data analysis, mining and visualization. The selected works of critical writing include Hartman (1996), Barbosa (1996), Glazier (2002), Stefans (2003), Engberg (2007), Funkhouser (2007, 2012), Emerson (2008), Johnston (2011), Rosario (2011), Dupej (2012), Emerson (2014) and Carpenter (2014).
The two questions I posed then were: 1) Is there a prevalence of self-referenced creative works in critical writing? 2) Is there a set of digital poems being more referenced than other? By exporting the tables of cross-references from the ELMCIP KB into visualization software, I try to better understand and debate, by means of macro analytical visualizations and network analysis, these questions, following Franco Moretti’s notion of “distant reading” (2005) and application methodology in the field of electronic literature such as those developed by Jill Walker Rettberg (2012, 2013) and Scott Rettberg (2013).
Con la creazione del Web semantico, la comunità scientifica ha sviluppato nuovi strumenti e linguaggi attraverso i quali estendere le proprie ricerche, rendendole potenzialmente accessibili a un pubblico sempre maggiore. Le discipline umanistiche, in particolare, hanno complessivamente indirizzato l’utilizzo di tali strumenti verso due obiettivi principali: garantire una fruibilità più rapida e diffusa dei testi, e ricercare nuove modalità di approccio a tali testi, modalità che, senza l’utilizzo di questi nuovi strumenti, sarebbero state fino a pochi anni fa più difficoltose. Su questi presupposti, è stato sviluppato il progetto GeoLat che si propone di costruire e rendere accessibile a tutti una biblioteca digitale dell’intera letteratura latina, in cui l’accesso ai testi avverrà attraverso mappe digitali che rappresenteranno le conoscenze geografiche degli autori contenuti in tale biblioteca. I punti chiave e gli aspetti principali e più innovativi di tale progetto possono essere schematicamente così suddivisi:
1. l’adesione ai principi dell’Open Access per prodotti della ricerca scientifica, l’adozione di licenze Creative Commons e l’utilizzo di strumenti tecnologici e concettuali che facilitano la collaborazione
2. la creazione di una biblioteca digitale che integri gli archivi già esistenti dei testi della letteratura latina con le codifiche TEI e XML;
3. l’estrapolazione e l’annotazione nei testi delle referenze geografiche, alle quali saranno associati URI che ne consentano una descrizione formale;
4. la costruzione, attraverso l’analisi e l’integrazione di progetti pre-esistenti, di un’ontologia geo-informatica, adatta a fornire una descrizione completa e informativa delle conoscenze geografiche che emergono dai testi della letteratura latina.
In this paper we describe the development of a tool capable of generating word maps for the results of any given search in a medieval volume called the Becerro Galicano, a late twelfth-century cartulary from the Spanish monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla. The manuscript is one of the most important sources for early medieval Iberia, particularly because, unlike most equivalent monastic sources, it covers a very broad and at once philologically and historically complex area, spanning the old frontier between al-Andalus and the nascent Cristian realms of Castile and Navarre. We provide a series of examples illustrating how different onomastic and lexical items, with a mixture of Romance, Basque and Arabic linguistic influences, can be mapped.
Corpus stylistics has become increasingly popular as a method for investigating the stylistic properties of literary texts in recent years. However, the number of specialised, ready to use, open-access corpora available has remained comparatively small. To facilitate answering many questions that are interesting from a literary studies point of view, concerning for instance matters of (literary) genre or the literature of certain periods, more specialised corpora are necessary. My project is such as specialised corpus, namely of eighteenth century prose fiction. In its current incarnation it comprises approximately one hundred texts from a range of genres, such as epistolary novels, sentimental novels, and Gothic fiction, covering a wide variety of well-known and lesser known authors. The corpus has been constructed with literary studies interests in mind, such as typical genres, and against the background of publication data from the eighteenth century. My paper is especially concerned with a perspective on representativeness that tries to combine linguistic and literary interests. This makes my corpus a valuable resource for exploring the stylistic properties of the various kinds of text now recognised as precursors of the novel.
The Christine de Pizan Digital Scriptorium currently houses all manuscripts of the author’s works held at the Bibliothèque nationale de France with detailed codicological information and other metadata. The ultimate objective of the project is to make available all of her extant “presentation copies” (those produced by her in her own scriptorium), as well as all the manuscripts of her texts produced by others. The site is part of the original Roman de la Rose manuscripts database maintained by Johns Hopkins University’s Sheridan Libraries. I propose to outline the history of the project, its aims, and its status. I propose to discuss how the project ties in with the larger MARGOT project and the collection of Roman de la rose manuscripts that are part of the online database.
In the domain of electronic edition, drama’s specificity has been acknowledged in terms of metadata improvements and possibilities (Mueller, 2014). At the same time, an increasing closeness between art history research and performance art has demonstrated its methodological value to assess the complex nature of the archive (Clarke, 2013). My post-doctoral research follows this twofold lead and goes as far as proposing that performance art can be an adequate methodology when preparing the electronic edition of eighteenth-century drama. Accordingly, a corpus of fifteen manuscript plays not yet published is being edited in a manner that is thought to benefit future performative endeavors. In other words, the edited plays are supposed to engender and participate in new performative practices that attest to the interplay between the repertoire, in terms of embodied memory and knowledge transmission (Taylor, 2003), and “performance remains” (Schneider, 2001) as grounds for scholarly engagement in the rethinking of the concept, methods and uses of editing. Furthermore, “performing the archive” (Borggreen and Gade, 2013) can help to bridge the gap between the eventful nature of drama manuscripts and the audience of today by suggesting new ways of endorsing the specific materiality of the plays through digital media. This mainly entails “an expressive form” that does not feel threatened by its conceptual dimension (McGann, 1997), and is thus able to restore the multi-layered dimension of dramatic discourse (Pinto, 2009; 2015).
La irrupción de los medios tecnológicos y su convergencia para la creación de nuevos discurso y productos culturales han contribuido a la experimentación con otros formatos vinculados a una lectura en pantallas o a la industria digital. En este sentido, la crítica se plantea la actualización de nociones como autor, lector u obra. Una producción transmedia estimula, a su vez, tanto el consumo como la creatividad del público. El formato expande los contenidos y permite al espectador la posibilidad de una experiencia de lectura y recepción individuales, pues este determina su perspectiva ante los mismos: la decisión de explorarlos, de ignorarlos o de generar nuevos materiales. Por su parte, la historia del vídeo se presenta como un continuo proceso de análisis y metamorfosis. A partir de los años sesenta y de artistas como Nan June Paik o Wolf Vostell, o teóricos como Marshall McLuhan o Gene Youngblood, en los años posteriores, el video se convierte en un medio que reflexiona acerca de sus límites y formas. La presente comunicación pretende abordar las posibilidades de esta palabra plástica dentro del ámbito de la narrativa transmedia hispánica, tomando como referente la obra de Agustín Fernández Mallo, donde se materializa en una combinación de imagen filmada y texto: la videoescritura.
La crítica generada en torno al microrrelato viene demostrando que, aunque su origen oscila alrededor de los inicios del siglo XX, esta categoría textual literaria se ha revelado paradigmática del modo de estar y pensar del hombre contemporáneo. Su naturaleza escueta, veloz, sugerente e híbrida le permite entrar fácilmente en diálogo con discursos de otros ámbitos. Por otra parte, su carácter mestizo y heterogéneo ha provocado importantes discusiones a la hora de considerarlo un género narrativo autónomo, una categoría transtextual o un discurso sumiso al cuento literario. En concomitancia, su difusión por Internet en los últimos años y desde distintos circuitos comprueba que es en la Red Virtual donde halla el hábitat ideal para desarrollar sus potencialidades y que en larga medida es la responsable por su actual éxito. Desde este planteamiento, resulta de capital relieve abordar este discurso partiendo de la premisa de que, sin haber nacido en el mundo tecnológico tal y como hoy lo vemos, el microrrelato ha sabido fortificarse y aprovecharse de las características de la esfera virtual para propagarse y para convertirse en un fenómeno altamente democratizado, sobre todo desde la creación. Será nuestro objetivo, por lo tanto, escudriñar desde un punto de vista teórico las compatibilidades entre la Red y la escritura del microrrelato, enlazándolo con una componente práctica.
Session K [Analysis Strand 3]
Jenny Bergenmar and Leif-Jöran Olsson (University of Gothenburg – SE)
Tracing Cultural Transfer Through Multiple Translation Analysis: The Case of the Swedish 19th- Century Bourgeois Novel in German and Czech
In the last decades, Comparative Literature has become more directed towards questions of transculturality. This renders translations of literary texts an important role as a vehicle not just for the transfer of text and language, but also of ideas and cultures. Digital methods for comparing multiple translations within and across languages might prove to be important for exploring how, for example, a Swedish 19th century bourgeois novel is reframed in Czech translations. The chosen example is A Merchant House (1859) by Emilie Flygare–Carlén (1807–1892) who was one of the most popular authors in Czech speaking regions in the late 19th Century. In this paper existing collation tools are used for comparing two different Czech translations (1872 and 1910), by two different translators. This might both reveal how the gender, context and position of the translator colours the literary text and how the translations are adapted to changing literary trends. Furthermore, parallel text alignment is tried as a method for comparing across languages, since the Czech translation is made from a German translation. Are the Czech translations subject to “foreignization” or “domestication”? Or do they retain the same traits as the German translation, which is the source of the first Czech translation? Does the systematic comparison of multiple translations contribute to the understanding of how texts move from certain gendered cultural contexts and ideologies to others?
(ULICES, Lisbon University – PT; and CLUL, ULICES, NOVA University – PT)
This paper brings the discussion on the digital reinvention of literary studies to the field of literary translation teaching and research. Its immediate aims are (i) to present the collaborative platform PEnPAL in Trans – Portuguese-English Platform for Anthologies of Literature in Translation, and especially (ii) to discuss the main challenges that it is facing at the moment regarding the construction of an online database of English-Portuguese transfer problems. This project is an interinstitutional literary translation venture, joining higher education agents and researchers in literature, linguistics, translation and English studies from various institutions. Its main purpose is to offer support for literarytranslation in higher education, while contributing to innovative research in the abovementioned areas and their interface with Digital Humanities. Elaborating on the concept of process-oriented education and “social constructivism in the translation classroom” (Kiraly, 2000), PEnPAL in Trans has developed a specific awareness of the literary translator’s “expert action” (Jones 2011). Therefore, this project seeks to engage the Humanities academe as a driving force for knowledge sharing within a project-based philosophy of translation training. The database of English-Portuguese transfer problems that is being developed within this project intends to combine the advantages of traditional translation manuals and example-driven tools like translation memories. It will constitute, therefore, a corpus-based, categorized database of concrete examples of cases of hard-to-translate texts together with their respective translation(s) and translation strategy(ies). For both experimental and pedagogic purposes, this database is meant to be of online access, thereby providing a public tool for research in the English-Portuguese language pair.
Using an abstract graph model we describe a hypothetical transformation of a literary entity through the active connections in the graph. First, we weakly define a set of transformations (“morphology”) over a particular entity as a series of the recent activities distinguishing them into categories according to their effect on the entity. Second, to our conjecture, the emerging paths of forms are slowly abandoning the origin’s “birth context”, shaping a decreased set of cleansed entities to replacing the gap with entities derived from the dynamic set of “recipient context”.
In this presentation I will describe the conception of an electronic edition model for orally transmitted texts that I am working on in my doctorate. I will especially concentrate on the issues behind collection methodology, theoretical aspects concerning editing traditions in Portugal, bearing in mind the ethical issues and the degrees of fidelity to the moment of enunciation. Can an edition of oral literary compositions be a good representation of what is actually being transmitted? What is Oral Literature? How to edit its contextual peculiarities?
Oral Literature textual editorial solutions have been long settled in the Iberian academic environment but what about paralinguistic elements? Several research areas focus on particular parts of the enunciation – Literary studies concentrate on the transcription, Anthropologic studies concentrate on the artistic performance or interactants’ behavior, etc. Having the means to make available a more complete contextualization of Oral Literature, this presentation will focus not only on the literary enunciation but also on the concept that oral literary texts are multimodal. Therefore, attention will be given to the various aspects believed to be present during the production of an oral composition: textual utterance, body movement (face, torso, arms, hands), voice characteristics (intonation, prosody) and proxemics (the spatial relation between interactants).
A Restinga, bairro localizado 30 km ao sul do centro de Porto Alegre, é composta por moradores que são autores de produções culturais e literárias. Marco Maragato já viveu em vários lugares e se inscreve como sujeito narrativo no ambiente digital. Em minha tese de doutorado, intitulada Das materialidades da literatura: a reinvenção da vida e o acervo de narrativas orais urbano-digitais, procurei contemplar uma nova forma de percepção da relação narrativa – narrador – Universidade – Periferia, nascida a partir dos estudos de literatura contemporânea, na sociedade da informação, lugar no qual as informações giram de forma cada vez mais veloz e a partir da constatação da existência de um narrador oral urbano (Maragato) que produz uma narrativa usando, a seu favor e como sua grande ferramenta, o meio digital, para assim, chegar no conceito de narrador oral urbano-digital. No âmbito desta apresentação, quero enfocar o narrador e as narrativas orais urbano-digitais em sua relação com o hipertexto e a literatura. Intentarei, neste trabalho, estabelecer, a partir da relação Universidade – Periferia, uma definição acerca da narrativa digital para, em seguida, chegarmos em quem a produz: o narrador. Sistematizar a narrativa digital e hiperficção literária é significativo para se legitimar o conceito do narrador oral urbano-digital, sendo este o resultado final de minha tese, que se quer trazer à tona nesta reflexão.
“Caleidoscópio Amazônico: a oralidade amazônica em imagem, som e movimento” é uma pequena amostra de minha tese de doutorado cujo objetivo é analisar o percurso movente das narrativas contidas no CD-ROM Caleidoscópio Amazônico com vistas a: a) verificar a metodologia utilizada ou não no projeto IFNOPAP, desde a coleta das narrativas até a criação do CD; b) apontar os indicadores de etnotexto presentes ou não nas narrativas do CD-ROM e c) analisar quais traços de etnotexto sofreram apagamento e que outros traços tomaram forma na versão final do Caleidoscópio. Para tanto, visitas ao projeto IFNOPAP foram e serão feitas para analisar os documentos do projeto que dizem respeito ao fazer da equipe e sua metodologia desde a coleta das narrativas até a concepção do projeto Caleidoscópio; analisar os arquivos sonoros, em especial, as narrativas que deram origem às versões “caleidoscópicas” bem como, as transcrições de cada uma delas. Depois disso será feita uma análise do CD-ROM com vistas a esmiuçar os detalhes do projeto bem como se os objetivos da equipe foram alcançados e verificar os traços étnicos apagados, realçados ou os novos traços presentes no produto final. Tudo isso será obviamente embasado na leitura de autores como: VILHENA, BOM-MEIHY, ALMEIDA e QUEIROZ; ZUMTHOR, FINNEGAN, PELEN, HALL, CASTELLS; HAVERLOCK, LEVY e MCLUHAN.
In the past few years, due to the increased global cultural production and consumption within the digital markets, special attention has been paid to the meeting point between Shakespeare and new media, which is generating new knowledge in publicly-funded, commercial, as well as user-made culture.
In the present paper we will argue that the strategies of digital curation of Shakespeare overwhelmingly favor archival sources to born-digital material, due to lingering conceptions of canon and heritage value. For this purpose, in an attempt to categorize the various types of production of digital Shakespeare material, we will employ think tanker John Holden’s tripartite model of culture, which departs from the set of binary oppositions of high/popular culture towards a network of interrelated spheres, namely: publicly funded culture, commercial culture and home-made culture. While the first two spheres have traditional gatekeepers “who define the meaning of culture through their decisions”, home-made culture is still a marginal enterprise, defined by informal peers and communities.
This article takes a comparative look at the annotative models and devices that readers have used historically to organize the information in texts, in order to better understand the needs that readers bring to the digital environment. Starting in the early Middle Ages, when the vivid images in illustrated manuscripts helped readers to make sense of the main text and even to memorize the page visually, the article gives a brief history of information management “from the margins” and discusses what this context offers to new-media creators of social annotation and visualization tools. The article also connects the work done in the margins to discussions of reader communities and the sociology of texts: texts train us as readers before we fully encounter them, but a key part of that training takes place in the blank spaces around a text, where readers interpret and learn to become interpreters. As this analysis shows, even in the wild West of the digital humanities, social activity plays a determining role in shaping the forms that note-taking tools adopt and even the definition of what a reader is and needs. This analysis has useful implications for discussions of the future of note-taking and annotation, as universities and industry make greater investments in projects that aim to shift the very old activity of note-taking from page to screen. As we design new tools for annotation for the digital age, what models will prove most sustainable?
La segunda etapa del proyecto “Discursos, imágenes y prácticas culturales sobre Santiago de Compostela como meta de los Caminos de Santiago” tiene como previsión la explotación computacional de los recursos detectados para sistematizar el descubrimiento tanto de la información útil presente en cada documento como para el conocimiento que surge de relacionar el contenido de ellos. Con este trabajo pretendemos avanzar en el desarrollo de un marco teórico-metodológico que responda a esa necesidad tomando como caso de estudio el procesamiento textual dentro del subcorpus novelesco en español sobre esta temática, dado que sintetiza la doble problemática que afecta a los dos corpora recompilados en la investigación: la amplitud numérica de los materiales y su voluminosidad. Así, colocamos como propuesta analítica seguir las técnicas del área de la minería textual, que protocoliza procesos de extracción, filtrado, clasificación y caracterización semántica, así como el test de software de acceso libre para cada etapa: ANTCONC, LEXICOMICS e IRAMUTEQ intentando garantizar mayor control sobre las operaciones y la circulación compartida del saber generado.
O objetivo desta comunicação é dar notícia tanto do processo de conceitualização como, sobretudo, das possibilidades de exploração que oferecem duas ferramentas digitais concebidas para a catalogação e a abordagem de grandes volumes de informação e de documentação audiovisual e textual. Para além da descrição do desenho e das principais características e funcionalidades dessas bases de dados relacionais (catalogadores), neste texto pretendemos evidenciar como estas ferramentas permitem censar, organizar e selecionar materiais de diverso tipo e grande volume para a sua abordagem através de diferentes procedimentos, métodos e instrumentos de análise, quer eles sejam quantitativos, qualitativos, relacionais, textuais (text mining) ou até genéticos (estes últimos de grande utilidade para a realização de edições críticas de textos literários).
LdoD Archive is a dynamic digital archive based on Fernando Pessoa’s Livro do Desassossego [“L. do D.”]. The Archive contains facsimiles and textual transcriptions of autograph witnesses (manuscripts, typescripts, printed texts) as well as textual transcriptions of four editions of the Book of Disquiet published between 1982 and 2010. All variations across the textual corpus have been marked up in TEI-conformant XML. This granular encoding has enabled us to automate comparisons between any 2, 3, 4 or 5 versions of any given fragment, both at the micro-scale of textual form, and at the macro-scale of bibliographic structure. Besides the set of functionalities related to the scholarly level of the archive, the LdoD Archive provides a set of software tools that allow readers to generate further content by creating their own editions and annotations within the archive’s virtual layer. The research for this project culminated in a dynamic model for a digital archive, which brings collaborative computing techniques into the universe of critical editing and reading in digital media. This paper discusses the conceptual and technical virtualization of the Book of Disquiet as a digital simulation of the dynamic nature of textual fields. The procedural and participatory affordances of the Archive will be illustrated throughout with the current version of the LdoD Archive.
Em 1988 Ivo Castro, responsável da edição crítica da obra de Fernando Pessoa para a Imprensa Nacional Casa da Moeda, remarcou, numa comunicação intitulada “Edição Crítica de Pessoa: O Modelo Editorial Adoptado”, que “como negar ao leitor o máximo de conhecimento sobre o que está escrito por Pessoa nos manuscritos, quando sabemos que dentro de uma geração, provavelmente, nem o leitor, nem nós, seremos ainda capazes de decifrar a tinta sumida dos papéis”. Neste artigo argumentamos que a codificação das fases de escrita no Livro do Desassossego permitem representar o processo de composição que é interpretado de maneira diferente pelos especialistas. Desta forma, a comparação entre o trabalho realizado com a edição crítica e o trabalho realizado com a codificação informática permite pôr em paralelo problemas e soluções adoptados em dois momentos diferenciados dos estudos pessoanos e dos estudos humanísticos em geral.
Session P [Teaching Strand 3]
PANEL Digital Methodologies and the Student Literature Essay
Barbara Alvarez (University of Michigan – US)
Teaching by Building: How Not to Abandon Don Quixote and the Essay Assignment
Drawing on the experience with the digital project Don Quixote in English, this paper will explore the challenges and opportunities of digital project-based learning in an undergraduate literature course. When well designed, digital projects can influence student learning in a number of ways: they increase motivation and active engagement, allow for a wide range of learning styles, and encourage creativity. Visualization of data, in particular, helps understand difficult material and identify opportunities for critical inquiry that remain “invisible” to the readers of text. The use of digital technology enriches student experience and facilitates development of new digital skills, but at the same time it can also invigorate the practice of “old” skills such as research and essay writing.
Session P [Teaching Strand 3]
PANEL Digital Methodologies and the Student Literature Essay
Patrick Tonks (University of Michigan – US)
Digital Projects vs. Essays: On the Contingency of Literature Assignments
While appreciation of literature often does come through the process of crafting a well-turned essay, there are other ways of exploring literature and (crucially, for the satisfaction of institutions that count on measuring student achievement) showing that one has meaningfully investigated and learned from a text. Digital projects constitute one set of alternative options to the essay. By substituting digital assignments (in particular projects that involve data visualization) for essay assignments, literature courses can avoid some of the limitations that the argumentative essay form imposes on students’ exploration of literary works. In this presentation, I will draw some preliminary observations from the experience of requiring undergraduate students to produce data visualization projects instead of essays in two different literature courses. Having students use digital tools to compile, organize, map, and visualize data “extracted” from literary works (or the historical context of those works) can paradoxically allow for more free exploration of and reflection on literary themes, while at the same time giving students access to institutional forms that may hold more relevance for their professional lives. My aim is to begin to disentangle the (largely unspoken) assumption that studying texts (works of literature) can best be done through the writing of texts (in this case, student essays), while providing examples of how visualization projects in particular can satisfy the learning goals of literature instructors and students in some ways better than essay assignments can.
Session P [Teaching Strand 3]
PANEL Digital Methodologies and the Student Literature Essay
Justin Joque (University of Michigan – US)
Teaching Literature Through Data Visualization
The ability to display complex webs of relations, themes, geographies, characters, etc. within and between texts provides unique opportunities for the study and teaching of literature. Data visualization provides a variety of challenges and opportunities for thinking about literature beyond the scholarly essay. Visualization allows students and scholars to understand and investigate complex relations and trends within literature elucidating aspects of texts that are otherwise unavailable. In addition to placing visualization in the larger scholarly and pedagogical environment, the paper draws directly on experiences teaching literature, such as Moby-Dick, and other humanities topics through visualization. Ultimately, it provides both a technical and theoretical description of the role, challenges and opportunities provided by visualization for teaching literature.
Session Q [Analysis Strand 6]
PANEL Literatura y Testimonios en la Diáspora Digital Ibérica e Iberoamericana
Elsa Lechner (University of Coimbra – PT)
A Escrita Autobiográfica de Emigrantes Portugueses em Newark: Resistência aos Estereótipos e Emancipação Glocal
Esta comunicación se centrará en la presentación de los resultados de una investigación Fulbright/Instituto Camões en marcha que se centra en la escritura autobiográfica de los emigrantes portugueses en New Jersey (EE. UU.). El estudio se ha centrado en el análisis de textos surgidos de la diáspora portuguesa en el país norteamericano para aportar una reflexión sobre la figura del “emigrante” portugués más allá de los factores puramente sociales o sociológicos. Se trata de una base teórica contrahegemónica necesaria para la comprensión de la diáspora y su testimonio como elemento de empoderamiento de los sujetos en el espacio glocal (local y global) de la no ficción y autoficción. Para ello se recurre al estudio pormenorizado de cuatro obras autobiográficas en concreto a partir de las cuales se analiza el potencial heurístico y valor biopolítico de los testimonios de emigrantes. La comunicación ofrecerá la presentación de los resultados preliminares de la investigación, todavía en curso en el momento de envío de resumen, de emigrantes portugueses en Newark. La investigación parte de la constatación de una disonancia entre las representaciones dominantes sobre la figura del emigrante portugués y las identidades creativas en carne y hueso que nos encontramos sobre el terreno.
Session Q [Analysis Strand 6]
PANEL Literatura y Testimonios en la Diáspora Digital Ibérica e Iberoamericana
Celia Corral Cañas (Universidad de Salamanca – ES)
La Poesía de la Diáspora en la Creación Computacional Hispánica
Desde la perspectiva poética, la diáspora es un elemento clave en la literatura de la creación computacional hispánica. En un momento en el que el concepto de nación ha entrado en crisis y se apuesta, por el contrario, teórica y experimentalmente por lo transatlántico y transnacional, algunos de los artistas del ámbito de la literatura digital más relevantes del panorama peninsular proceden de países iberoamericanos, en una manifestación clara de la superación de las fronteras territoriales en aras de una vivencia multicultural. De este modo, la diáspora se convierte en un tema presente en el inconsciente creativo de estos autores, con secuelas que se visibilizan en distintos aspectos, temáticos y formales, y que desembocan finalmente en la obra. La relación entre la diáspora y la creación computacional radica, por tanto, en la propia cosmovisión del medio electrónico, que entronca con los conceptos clave de nuestro tiempo: la “heterotopía”, de Michel Foucault; el “no-lugar” de Marc Augé; la pantalla como espacio global, de Gilles Lipovetsky y Jean Serroy; el “rizoma” de Gilles Deleuze y Félix Guattari; lo “efímero”, de Gilles Lipovetsky y la “liquidez” de Zygmunt Bauman. La evanescencia y la volatilidad de la pantalla transmiten la sensación del viaje continuo y del desarraigo en esta galaxia, la Galaxia Internet, en la que todo cibernauta –todo escritor y todo lector– practica y vive un nomadismo incesante y necesario.
Session Q [Analysis Strand 6]
PANEL Literatura y Testimonios en la Diáspora Digital Ibérica e Iberoamericana
Daniel Escandell Montiel (Universidad de Salamanca – ES)
Reconstrucción del Yo: Memorias de América en la Narrativa Digital de los Emigrados a España
Esta comunicación se centrará en el testimonio del emigrado desde la perspectiva de la narración de la memoria y de la nostalgia como una literatura del recuerdo, sí, pero también como la construcción de un nuevo presente a través de la asimilación de la nueva situación como parte de la cicatrización emocional del proceso memorístico. Para ello, se analizará el espectro de la creación literaria de los autores iberoamericanos emigrados principalmente a España que han desarrollado una producción escritural centrada muy en particular durante parte de su trayectoria literaria (pero no necesariamente de forma exclusiva en el ámbito de la digitalidad). Esto implica poner el foco en la narrativa digital no desde la perspectiva de la técnica digital empleada o las taxonomías habituales del género, sino desde la de la diáspora y la búsqueda de una nueva identidad en el cambio de locus experimentado por el autor. El estudio pretende recoger también los casos más significativos para este análisis de la producción literaria en la diáspora latinoamericana cuando esta se ha dado también en otros países europeos. Se trata, en definitiva de comprender estas voces puramente ficcionales superando los enfoques generales de los ámbitos de estudio que hasta ahora las han capitalizado (en esencia, los estudios de mediología y periodismo, los literarios, los de ingeniería informática y de las telecomunicaciones y todas sus hibridaciones posibles) para interpretarlas desde las claves instrumentales de la diáspora como testimonio cultural del emigrado.
ANDRADE, Pedro (University of Minho – PT)
BACKMAN, Russell (University of California, Davis – US)
BARROS, Rita Queiroz de (ULICES, Lisbon University – PT)
BERGENMAR, Jenny (University of Gothenburg – SE)
BOSCHETTI, Federico (Istituto di Linguistica Computazionale Antonio Zampolli – IT)
BRANDO, Carmen (Université Paris-Sorbonne, Labex OBVIL / LIP6 – FR)
CARPENTER , J.R. (University of the Arts, London – UK)
CIOTTI, Fabio (University of Rome “Tor Vergata” – IT)
CORRAL CAÑAS, Celia (Universidad de Salamanca – ES)
CORREA, Alamir (UEL – Universidade Estadual de Londrina – BR)
DARÓCZY, Bálint (Computer and Automation Research Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences – HU)
FLETCHER, Jerome (University College Falmouth – UK)
GEMEINBOECK, Iris (University of Vienna – AT)
GIAMPÀ, Daniele (Gruppo Giada – CH/ IT)
GIMÉNEZ, Diego (CLP, University of Coimbra – PT)
GOICOECHEA, María (Complutense University of Madrid – ES)
GOMES, Mariana (CLUL/King’s College, London – PT/UK)
GRAHAM, Elyse (SUNY, Stony Brook – US)
GREGG, Stephen H. (Bath Spa University – UK)
IADEVAIA, Roberta (Gruppo Giada – CH/ IT)
JACQUOT, Clémence (Université Paris-Sorbonne, Labex OBVIL – FR)
JANSSEN, Maarten (CLUL, Lisbon University – PT)
JOLIVET, Vincent (Université Paris-Sorbonne, Labex OBVIL – FR)
JOQUE, Justin (University of Michigan – US)
KHAN, Fahad (Istituto di Linguistica Computazionale Antonio Zampolli – IT)
KIRSCHENBAUM, Matthew G. (University of Maryland – US)
LECHNER, Elsa (University of Coimbra – PT)
MANCINELLI, Tiziana (University of Reading – UK)
MANDERSTEDT, Lena (Luleå University of Technology – SE)
MARCHESINI, Andrea (Firefox OS, London – UK)
MARECKI, Piotr (Jagiellonian University – PL)
McWEBB, Christine (University of Waterloo – CA)
MIHAI, Adriana (University of Bucharest/Romanian Academy – RU)
PÁL, Dániel Levente (Eötvös Lorand University, Budapest – HU)
PALO, Annbritt (Luleå University of Technology – SE)
PEREIRA, Luís Lucas (CLP, University of Coimbra – PT)
PETERSON, David (University of the Basque Country – ES)
PINTO, Isabel (Research Centre for Communication and Culture, Catholic University – PT)
PORTELA, Manuel (CLP, University of Coimbra – PT)
PRZYBYLSKI, Mauren Pavão (Pós-Doutoranda PNPD / CAPES/ UNEB – BR)
RANIERI, Alexandre Ferreira (UEL – Universidade Estadual de Londrina – BR)
RETTENMAIER, Miguel (Universidade de Passo Fundo – BR)
RIGUET, Marine (Université Paris-Sorbonne, Labex OBVIL – FR)
RYBICKI, Jan (Uniwersytet Jagiellonski – PL)
SAMARTIM, Roberto (Universidade da Corunha e Grupo Galabra-USC, Galiza – ES)
SÁNCHEZ, Laura (Complutense University of Madrid – ES)
SÁNCHEZ APARICIO, Vega (Universidad de Salamanca – ES)
SANTOS, Tiago (CLP, University of Coimbra – PT)
SILVA, António Rito (IST/INESC-ID, University of Lisbon – PT)
TAMBASSI, Timothy (Università del Piemonte Orientale – IT)
TONKS, Patrick (University of Michigan – US)
VALDEZ, Susana (ULICES, NOVA University – PT)
VALE DE GATO, Margarida (ULICES, Lisbon University – PT)